In this post I review the temperature structure of the atmosphere and lower stratosphere temperature (TLS) anomaly trends.
Temperature Structure in the Atmosphere
In post 1 of this series, I developed this RClimate chart of temperature soundings which I update daily: (Click to enlarge)
I have made several revisions to my ambient lapse rate calculation in the past month because I noticed that the inflection point for the temperature profile varies from approximately 8 km to 11 km on a day to day basis.
Atmospheric Thermal Structure
The temperature soundings chart shows how the temperature changes with increase in altitude. Scientists have defined several atmospheric layers based on how temperature changes with altitude: troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere and thermosphere (link).
The Ozone layer is in the 15-25 km altitude region, within the lower stratosphere. Ozone concentrations in the troposphere are approximately 0.04 ppmv, they are 10 ppmv in the lower stratosphere. Ozone absorbs ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun, causing the stratosphere to warm.
Lower Stratosphere Temperature Trends
RSS provides monthly temperature anomalies for 4 zones:
- Lower Troposphere (TLT)
- Middle Troposphere (TMP)
- Troposphere/ Stratosphere (TTS)
- Lower Stratosphere (TLS)
The TLT and TLS land ocean series are included in the CTS.csv file as RSS and TLS respectively.
The following RClimate chart shows the monthly TLT data series since 1979. In a previous post about volcanoes, I discussed the Stratospheric Aerosol Optical Thickness Index (SATO) (link) and showed the global dimming effects of major volcanic eruptions. I have included the SATO Index in this chart to show the effects of volcanic eruptions on stratospheric temperature anomalies.
The TLS trend is clearly downward in the 1979-21011 period, with or without the high SATO index years.